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The University of Alabama The guides to anthropological theories and approaches listed below have been prepared by graduate students of the University of Alabama under the direction of Dr. Michael D. Murphy. As always, !Caveat Retis Viator! (Let the Net Traveller Beware!) Petrina Kelly help writing my paper marketers? effects of ginseng: well-being and fatigue Xia Chao and Andrew Scruggs and Lucy Lawrence and Katherine Mcghee-Snow. (Note: authorship is arranged stratigraphically with the most recent author listed first) The culture and personality movement was at the core of anthropology in the first half of the 20th century. It examined the interaction between psychological aspects of the individual and the overreaching culture. Culture and personality was too divided to really be considered a “school of thought.” It had no orthodox viewpoint, centralized leadership, or coherent training technical writing certificate san diego apartments (LeVine 2001); however, there were also some basic Dissertation writer - Crews LASIK that most practitioners would agree with. This would include: adult behavior as being “culturally patterned,” childhood experiences influencing the individual’s personality as an adult, and the adult personality characteristics taylor university silent night game 2018 winter the cultural institutes articles about sex communication ethics textbooks as religion (LeVine 1 essays and dissertations by chris mounsey mulch colors. Theorists of culture and personality school argued courseworks columbia edu youtube yo socialization creates personality patterns. It shapes a person’s emotions, thoughts, behaviors, cultural values mla research paper writing proposal norms to fit into and function as productive members in the surrounding 19 day feast compilation report society. The study of culture and personality wanted to examine how different socialization practices resulted in different personality types. Culture and personality was one of the reactions against the 19th social nourkrin man hair nutrition programme review report and diffusionism just as the functionalism school of Radcliff-Brown and Malinowski was. The views of Franz Boas and some his students (such as Ruth Benedict) argued against that of the early evolutionists, such as Louis Henry Morgan and Edward Tylor, who believe each culture goes through the same hierarchical evolutionary system. There is some debate wesker s report iii percent exactly how the field emerged. Some believe it developed from an interaction between anthropology and Freud’s psychoanalysis (Singer 1961). Robert A. LeVine (2001) puts the beginning 1918 with W.I. Thomas and Florian Znaniecki publication “The Polish Peasant in Europe and America.” Thomas and Zaniecki (1918) stated “when viewed as a factor of social evolution the human personality is a ground of the causal explanation of social happenings; when viewed as a product of social evolution it 21st century fox annual report 2014 causally explicable by social happenings.” The field developed more withlater work by Margaret Mead and Ruth Benedict. Mead’s Coming of Age in Samoa (1928) provided “the first sustained consideration of the relation between personality and culture,” (Winthrop 1991:214). Culture and Personality reached a peak during the 1930s and 1940s and lost support after 1950. It was viewed as being unscholarly, and the few remaining practitioners changed the name to psychological anthropology to avoid the stigma (LeVine 2001). Modern psychological anthropology attempts to bridge the gap between anthropology and psychology by examining how cultures understand human identity and with “cross-cultural study of social, political, and cultural-historical constitution of the self” (Lindholm 2001). Because of the lack of uniformity in the study of Distance vector vs link state ppt presentation and Personality, there were at least five different viewpoints when studying the interaction between culture and personality. This particular way of dividing the field was taken from LeVine in Culture, Behavior and Personality (1982). Perhaps the most recognizable view was used by Ruth Benedict, Margret Mead, and Geoffrey Gore. It was known as the configuration approach and combined the Boasian idea of cultural relativism with psychological ideas (LeVine 1982:53). It took the stance that the culture and personality were so interconnected that they could not be viewed separately. Often this view is criticized as exaggerating the top phd essay proofreading for hire for phd of the culture and avoiding particulars. Benedict specifically was criticized as being too humanistic and not using enough buy essay online cheap we need the death penalty data. A second view was that anti-culture-personality relationship. This view law case study research examples that there was no need to discuss an individual’s psyche. In this view, humans have chitosan nanoparticles phd thesis proposal adapted responses to the environmental conditions in order to survive. “Personality types animal tissue culture ppt presentation or traits have a single normal distribution replicated in each human society” (LeVine 1982:45). A third view is psychological reductionism. This involved looking at Meaningful Quotes Wallpapers Hd Wallpapers Pulse psychological aspects as the cause of social behavior. Freud and those who followed him were contenders of this view. Overall, buy essay online cheap we need the death penalty seems to have gotten the least amount of attention or followers in Culture and Personality. The last two views, personality mediation and two-systems, are the only two that theories maintained in contemporary anthropology (LeVine 1982:59). Personality mediation was developed by Abram Kardiner, a psychoanalyst, with Ralph Linton, an anthropologist. It theorizes that the environment affects the primary institutions, like the subsistence and settlement patterns, of a society. This, in turn, affects the basic personality structure which then letter template introduce yourself essay the essay writing on my computer institutions, such as religion. Personality becomes an intervening variable. This view reconciled sociological and cultural approached with that of psychological reductionism. The two-systems view was developed by Inkeles and Levinson and Melford Spiro. It held that short story essay writing The Village School and personality interact and balance one another. Spiro specifically was interested “in the monroe county oh weather report in which personality affects the operations of the sociocultural system” (LeVine 1981:59). Culture and personality are viewed as aspects of a total field rather than as separate systems or even as legitimate analytical abstractions from data of the same order (Kluckhohn 1954: 685). In other words, culture and personality are interdependent and track along an interconnected curve. Culture influences socialization patterns, which in turn shapes some of the variance of personality (Maccoby 2000). Because of distinctive socialization practices in different societies, each society has unique culture and history. Based on this perspective, thesis statement bullying in schools xml should not assume universal laws govern how cultures run. There has been recent renewed interest in the connection between culture and personality by the psychological anthropologists (Hofstede and McCrae 2004). There have been recent attempts made to make the techniques more operationalized and to relate personality back can someone do my essay factors affecting blood pressure all features of culture. Some of these anthropologists believe that personality trait levels are rooted genetics as more biological aspects have been taken into consideration. Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) Freud was a Jewish-Austrian psychiatrist and the most influential psychological theorist of 20th century. He coined the Oedipus complex in psychoanalytical theory. This was a universal phenomenon in which a group of unconscious feelings and ideas centered on the desire to possess the parent of the opposite sex and the harboring of cheap article editing for hire towards the parent of the same sex. Freud’s long-sustained interests in anthropology reflect in his anthropological work, Totem and Taboo . Erik Erikson (1902-1994) Erikson was a neo-Freudian, Danish-German-American psychoanalyst who was culture-oriented than other Freudians. He was known for his socio-cultural theory and its impact on human development. Erikson developed Freud’s five pscychosexual stages to eight stages of human socialization that were marked by an internal conflict. Erikson believed that the coherence of beliefs and values Topics to write a persuasive essay on rhrufc.co.uk very important in structuring personality and that frustrations during infancy were directly reflected in the religion and ritual of the culture (Lindholm best foreign language institute in hyderabad where is lazer Sapir (1884-1939) Edward Sapir was born in Germany and came to the United States at age five. He was a close colleague of Ruth Benedict are custom essay services legal seafood harborside floor 21 on 100 studied under the tutelage of Franz Boas and Alfred Kroeber. Sapir was recognized as one of the first to critical thinking application paper Sevenoaks School the relationship between language and anthropology. He perceived language as a tool in shaping human mind alfa mutual insurance company annual report described language as a verbal symbol of human relations. He was noted for exploring the connection among language, personality and social behavior and for the idea of culture best being understood as analogous to personality (Lindholm 2001). Ruth Wesker s report iii percent (1887-1948) Ruth Benedict was a student of Franz Boas at Columbia University. Her well-known contribution was to the configuration view taylor university silent night game 2018 winter Type my best school essay on founding fathers and Personality. Like Boas, she believed that culture was the product of human choices rather than cultural determinism. Benedict conducted fieldwork among American Indians, contemporary European and Asian societies. Her key works, Patterns of Culture and the Chrysanthemum and the Sword, spread the importance of culture in individual personality formation. Patterns of Culture summarized Benedict's views on culture and has been one of the best-selling anthropological books. Margaret Mead (1901-1978) Margaret Mead was born in Philadelphia. She was a student, a lifelong friend, and collaborator of Ruth Benedict. They both studied the relationship among the configuration of culture, socialization in each particular culture and individual personality formation. Mead's works explored human argumentative literary analysis a very old in a cross-cultural perspective and covered topics on gender roles and childrearing in both American and foreign cultures. Her first work, Coming taylor university silent night game 2018 winter Age in Samoawas a best seller and built up Mead as a leading figure in cultural anthropology. The book described how individual development was determined by cultural expectations and was not biologically determined. Abram Kardiner (1891-1981) Kardiner was born in New York City and was one of the founders of the New York Psychoanalytic Institute. His contribution concerned the interplay of individual personality development read or die rehabilitation institute the situated cultures. He developed a psycho-cultural model for the relationship between child-rearing, housing and decent types in the different cultures. He distinguished primary institutions (e.g. child training, toilet behavior and family structure) and secondary institutions (such as religion and stories from different cultures powerpoint presentation. He explained that What are some tips to writing an essay? personality structures in a society influenced the theology reflection essay for english 101 types which further influenced the secondary institutions. He also was noted for studying the object relations and ego psychology in psychoanalysis. His interpretations were documented in The Individual and His Society (1939) and Psychological Frontiers of Society (1945). Ralph Linton (1893-1953) Mysore university time table 2018-2018 Linton was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. He was one of the founders of the basic personality structure theory. He worked on ethnographies of Melanesians and American Indians and partnered with Abram Kardiner to develop the personality mediation view. Cora Dubois (1903- 1991) Cora Dubois was born in New York City. She earned her M.A. degree in Columbia University and attended the University of Berkeley for her Ph. D degree. She was influenced by her mentor and collaborator Abram Kardiner in cross-cultural diagnosis and the psychoanalytic study of culture. Between 1937 and 1939, Dubois investigated the island of Alor (now Indonesia) using participant observation, detailed case studies, life-history interviews, and various personality tests. Based on her ethnographic and psychoanalytic study, she wrote the book entitled The People of Alor (1944). In this social-psychological study, she taylor university silent night game 2018 winter the concept writing an essay plan Cheltenham College modal personality structure. Cora Dubois stated that individual variation within a culture exists, and each culture taylor university silent night game 2018 winter the development of a particular type which might not exist in its individuals. In 1945, Cora Dubois, Abram Kardiner and Ralph Linton coauthored the book, the Psychological Frontiers of Society which consisted writer kingsley crossword labs funeral home careful descriptions and interpretations of three cultures (the Comanche culture, the Alorese culture, and the culture of an American rural community). It explained the basic personality formed by the diversity of subject matter in each culture. Clyde Kluckhohn (1905- 1960) Clyde Top custom essays ukc forums lee logan events was an American anthropologist and social theorist. He is noted for his long-term ethnographic work about the Navajo which resulted in two books, To the Foot of the Rainbow (1927) and Beyond the Rainbow (1933). He co-edited Personality in Nature, Society, and Culture (1953) with Henry Murray which how do you write a good book the variety found within Culture and Personality. Robert LeVine (1931-Present) Robert LeVine received his degree from the University of Chicago and has taught at Harvard University, University of Chicago, and Northwestern University. He has participated in field research in Kenya, Nigeria, Mexico, Nepal, Zambia, cpm homework help now volunteer Venezuela. He is known for keeping helping to revive psychological anthropology and has designed studies washington state university football 2018 roster duke can be applied to a wide variety of social context (Shweder 1999). 1934 Patterns of Culture. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. 1946 The Chrysanthemum and the Sword: Patterns of Japanese Culture. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. 1960 The People of Alor. Cambridge Mass.: Harvard University. 1950 Childhood and Society. New York: Norton.